There are trash bins in our homes, on our streets, and even as a popular icon on our desktop computers. And as this colorful image shows, trash bins of the cellular variety are also important in the brain.
This image—a winner in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s 2017 BioArt competition—shows the brain of an adult zebrafish, a popular organism for studying how the brain works. It captures dense networks of blood vessels (red) lining the outer surface of the brain. Next to many of these vessels sit previously little-studied cells called fluorescent granular perithelial cells (yellowish green). Researchers now believe these cells, often shortened to FGPs, act much like trash receptacles that continuously take in and store waste products to keep the brain tidy and functioning well.
If you’ve ever tried to take photos of wiggly kids, you know that it usually takes several attempts before you get the perfect shot. It’s often the same for biomedical researchers when taking images with microscopes because there are so many variables—from sample preparation to instrument calibration—to take into account. Still, there are always exceptions where everything comes together just right, and you are looking at one of them! On her first try at using a confocal microscope to image this cross-section of a mouse embryo’s torso, postdoc Shachi Bhatt captured a gem of an image that sheds new light on mammalian development.
Bhatt, who works in the NIH-supported lab of Paul Trainor at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO, produced this micrograph as part of a quest to understand the striking parallels seen between the development of the nervous system and the vascular system in mammals. Fluorescent markers were used to label proteins uniquely expressed in each type of tissue: reddish-orange delineates developing nerve cells; gray highlights developing blood vessels; and yellow shows where the nerve cells and blood vessels overlap.
Tags: birth defects, blood vessels, cleft lip, cleft lip and palate, cleft palate, confocal microscope, craniofacial biology, craniofacial development, developmental biology, FASEB Bioart 2015, mammalian development, Med23, microscopy, mouse, nervous system, vasculature
What might appear in this picture to be an exotic, green glow worm served up on a collard leaf actually comes from something we all know well: an egg. It’s a 3-day-old chicken embryo that’s been carefully removed from its shell, placed in a special nutrient-rich bath to keep it alive, and then photographed through a customized stereo microscope. In the middle of the image, just above the blood vessels branching upward, you can see the outline of a transparent, developing eye. Directly to the left is the embryonic heart, which at this early stage is just a looped tube not yet with valves or pumping chambers.
Developing chicks are one of the most user-friendly models for studying normal and abnormal heart development. Human and chick hearts have a lot in common structurally, with four chambers and four valves pumping two circulations of blood in parallel. Unlike mammalian embryos tucked away in the womb, researchers have free range to study the chick heart in or out of the egg as it develops from a simple looped tube to a four-chambered organ.
Jonathan Butcher and his NIH-supported research group at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, snapped this photo, a winner in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s 2015 BioArt competition, to monitor differences in blood flow through the developing chick heart. You can get a sense of these differences by the varying intensities of green fluorescence in the blood vessels. The Butcher lab is interested in understanding how the force of the blood flow triggers the switching on and off of genes responsible for making functional heart valves. Although the four valves aren’t yet visible in this image, they will soon elongate into flap-like structures that open and close to begin regulating the normal flow of blood through the heart.
Tags: biomechanics, blood vessels, cardiology, chicken, chicken embryo, congenital heart defects, congenital heart disease, egg, FASEB Bioart 2015, fertilized egg, heart, heart development, heart valve
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