FASEB Bioart 2017
All plants and animals are susceptible to viral infections. But did you know that’s also true for bacteria? They get nailed by viruses called bacteriophages, and there are thousands of them in nature including this one that resembles a lunar lander: bacteriophage T4 (left panel). It’s a popular model organism that researchers have studied for nearly a century, helping them over the years to learn more about biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology .
The bacteriophage T4 infects the bacterium Escherichia coli, which normally inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of humans. T4’s invasion starts by touching down on the bacterial cell wall and injecting viral DNA through its tube-like tail (purple) into the cell. A DNA “packaging machine” (middle and right panels) between the bacteriophage’s “head” and “tail” (green, yellow, blue spikes) keeps the double-stranded DNA (middle panel, red) at the ready. All the vivid colors you see in the images help to distinguish between the various proteins or protein subunits that make up the intricate structure of the bacteriophage and its DNA packaging machine.
Posted In: Snapshots of Life
Tags: bacteria, bacteriophage, cancer, Chimera Visualization Software, cryo-electron microscopy, cryo-EM, E. coli, Escherichia coli, FASEB Bioart 2017, HIV, structural biology, T4 bacteriophage, virus, x-ray crystallography
As many of us know from hard experience, tearing a muscle while exercising can be a real pain. The good news is that injured muscle will usually heal quickly for many of us with the help of satellite cells. Never heard of them? They are the adult stem cells in our skeletal muscles long recognized for their capacity to make new muscle fibers called myotubes.
This striking image shows what happens when satellite cells from mice are cultured in a lab dish. With small adjustments to the lab dish’s growth media, those cells fuse to form myotubes. Here, you see the striated myotubes (red) with multiple cell nuclei (blue) characteristic of mature muscle fibers. The researchers also used a virus to genetically engineer some of the muscle to express a fluorescent protein (green).
There are trash bins in our homes, on our streets, and even as a popular icon on our desktop computers. And as this colorful image shows, trash bins of the cellular variety are also important in the brain.
This image—a winner in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s 2017 BioArt competition—shows the brain of an adult zebrafish, a popular organism for studying how the brain works. It captures dense networks of blood vessels (red) lining the outer surface of the brain. Next to many of these vessels sit previously little-studied cells called fluorescent granular perithelial cells (yellowish green). Researchers now believe these cells, often shortened to FGPs, act much like trash receptacles that continuously take in and store waste products to keep the brain tidy and functioning well.