Obesity involves the complex interplay of diet, lifestyle, genetics, and even the bacteria living in the gut. But there are other less-appreciated factors that are likely involved, and a new NIH-supported study suggests one that you probably never would have imagined: antenna-like sensory projections on brain cells.
The study in mice, published in the journal Nature Genetics , suggests these neuronal projections, called primary cilia, are a key part of a known “hunger circuit,” which receives signals from other parts of the body to control appetite. The researchers add important evidence in mouse studies showing that changes in the primary cilia can produce a short circuit, impairing the brain’s ability to regulate appetite and leading to overeating and obesity.
Tags: ADCY3, Alström syndrome, appetite, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, brain, cell biology, childhood obesity, ciliopathies, eating, fat, food, Greenland, hunger circuit, hypothalmus, leptin, MC4R neurons, melanocortin 1 receptor gene, neurons, obesity, obesity genes, overweight, Pakistan, polydactyly, primary cilia, weight
When I volunteered several years ago as a physician in a small hospital in West Africa, one of the most frustrating and frightening diseases I saw was sleeping sickness. Now, an investigator supported by the NIH Common Fund aims to figure out how this disease pathogen manages to evade the human immune system.
Monica Mugnier’s fascination with parasites started in college when she picked up the book Parasite Rex, a riveting, firsthand account of how “sneaky” parasites can be. The next year, while studying abroad in England, Mugnier met a researcher who had studied one of the most devious of parasites—a protozoan, spread by blood-sucking tsetse flies, that causes sleeping sickness in humans and livestock across sub-Saharan Africa.
Tags: 2016 NIH Director’s Early Independence Award, Africa, African trypanosomiasis, antigenic variation, CRISPR/Cas9, fat, gene editing, genomics, glycoprotein, immunology, neglected tropical diseases, parasite, protozoan, skin, sleeping sickness, sub-Saharan Africa, T. brucei, Trypanosoma brucei, tsetse fly, variant surface glycoprotein, VSG