It’s Spring! A Great Time for Cycling, Running, Walking, and Working Out!

People with their bikes at NIH

Caption: My wife Diane Baker and I, enjoying last year’s NIH Bike to Work Day.
Credit: NIH

Happy Bike to Work Day! I really wish that I could take part in the festivities on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus in Bethesda, MD as I have in past years, but NIH-related travel is keeping me away from my trusty bike.

So, let me take a moment to commend all of the enthusiastic cyclists at NIH, along with everyone else out there who’s doing everything you can to get and stay physically fit.  Here at NIH, we are particularly well situated to know the facts: taking charge of your health by participating in an exercise program and eating the right foods is among the most important investments you can make in your future.

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MicroRNA Research Takes Aim at Cholesterol

Illustration of artery partially blocked by a cholesterol plaque

Caption: Illustration of artery partially blocked by a cholesterol plaque.

If you’re concerned about your cardiovascular health, you’re probably familiar with “good” and “bad” cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its evil counterpart, low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Too much LDL floating around in your blood causes problems by sticking to the artery walls, narrowing the passage and raising risk of a stroke or heart attack. Statins work to lower LDL. HDL, on the other hand, cruises through your arteries scavenging excess cholesterol and returning it to the liver, where it’s broken down.

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Creative Minds: Lighting Up Memory

Christine Denny, Columbia UniversityOne of the most debilitating, and heartbreaking, consequences of Alzheimer’s disease is the way it slowly robs people of their memories. Unfortunately, we don’t yet have a cure for Alzheimer’s, let alone a good understanding of exactly how this disease destroys memory skills. That’s why, in this first post in my series highlighting some of the awardees in NIH Common Fund’s High-Risk, High-Reward Research Program, I’m excited to introduce a young scientist who’s using some cool technology to tackle this formidable challenge: Christine Ann Denny.

A winner of a 2013 NIH Director’s Early Independence Awards (often called the “skip-the-postdoc” award), Denny has developed a technique to label the cells that encode individual memories in the brains of mice. That’s right: she tags the nerve cells that build these memories, the neurons, with a fluorescent molecule that glows. Continue reading

Copying and Reading the Book of Life Inside One Cell, Accurately

Microwell strip

Caption: The genome researchers collaborated with materials science engineers to create the arrays of microwells or compartments that each capture a single cell.
Credit: UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering

Decoding the complete DNA genome in a single cell has been a major goal of technology developers. But the methods aren’t quite able to deal with that yet.  So, for scientists to do this, they first need to make multiple copies of the DNA inside. Until now, the copying technology hasn’t been as accurate as scientists would like. If you think of the genome like a book, then our current copiers replicate certain chapters thousands of times, others just a few, and some not at all. As you can imagine, if you tried to read one of these copies, you’d be quite confused—and you certainly couldn’t rely on your reading for any medical purposes.

Now, NIH-funded researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have developed a new molecular technique that can accurately and uniformly copy the DNA inside a single cell [1]. Using this technique, they’ve already made some surprising discoveries.

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Snapshots of Life: Amyloid Glows in Polarized Light

Amyloidosis as seen under a microscope

Credit: William Lewis, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta

While this may look like one of those bold canvases from the brush of an Abstract Expressionist, it’s actually a close-up of the biology underlying a rare, but relentless, group of conditions known as amyloidosis. This winner of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s 2013 BioArt contest traces in exquisite detail the damage that amyloid, which is the abnormal accumulation of specific extracellular proteins, can inflict on the heart.

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