Skip to main content

National Institutes of Health

Fighting Obesity: New Hopes From Brown Fat

Posted on by

Artist rendition of a xray showing brown fat as glowing green

Caption: Brown fat—actually marked in green on this image—is wrapped around the neck and shoulders. This “shawl” of brown fat warms blood before it travels to the brain.
Illustration: John MacNeill, based on patient imaging software designed by Ilan Tal. Copyright 2011 Joslin Diabetes Center

If you want to lose weight, then you actually want more fat, not less. But you need the right kind: brown fat. This special type of fatty tissue burns calories, puts out heat like a furnace, and helps to keep you trim. White fat, on the other hand, stores extra calories and makes you, well, fat. Wouldn’t it be nice if we could instruct our bodies to make more brown fat, and less white fat? Well, NIH-funded researchers have just taken another step in that direction [1].


Gain Without Pain: New Clues for Analgesic Design

Posted on by

A mouse and a scorpion sharing a space and facing nose-to-nose.

Photo Credit: Matthew Rowe, Michigan State University

If you’re a southern grasshopper mouse, nothing beats a delicious snack of scorpion. But what, you might ask, prevents that from being a painful or even fatal event?  Well, this native of the Arizona desert has evolved an amazing resistance to the stings of the bark scorpion—stings so painful and toxic they kill house mice and other rodents of similar size.

Why am I sharing this bit of natural history? Well, it turns out that by studying the grasshopper mouse and its unusual diet, NIH-funded researchers at the Indiana University School of Medicine and collaborators at the University of Texas, Austin, have identified a new target on nerve fibers that could lead to more effective and less addictive pain medications for humans.


Yeast Reveals New Drug Target for Parkinson’s

Posted on by

Untreated yeast shows clumps of brightly colored spots, while treated yeast are more even in their color.

Caption: Left, yeast sick with too much α-synuclein, a protein that is implicated in Parkinson’s disease. Right, the same yeast cells after a dose of NAB, which seems to reverse the toxic effects of α-synuclein.
Credit: Daniel Tardiff, Whitehead Institute

Many progressive neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, and Parkinson’s disease, are characterized by abnormal clumps of proteins that clog up the cell and disrupt normal cellular functions. But it’s difficult to study these complex disease processes directly in the brain—so NIH-funded researchers, led by a team at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, have turned to yeast for help.

Now, it may sound odd to study a brain disease in yeast, a microorganism long used in baking and brewing. After all, the brain is made up of billions of cells of many different types, while yeast grows as a single cell. But because the processes of protein production are generally conserved from yeast to humans, we can use this infinitely simpler organism to figure out what the proteins clumps are doing and test various drug candidates to halt the damage.


A White Halloween Costume That’s Not a Ghost

Posted on by

Photo of a tall man in glasses wearing a tie looking down at a young boy wearing play glasses, a tie, a white coat, and a stethoscope.

Caption: Dr. Jay Rubinstein and his mini-me, Landon Browne
Credit: Courtesy of Mary Guiden, Seattle Children’s Hospital

What costume to wear for Halloween? For many kids, it’s a difficult choice, but not so for 7-year-old Landon Browne. This year, he’s not going as a zombie or an action hero—he’s going as an NIH-funded researcher!

Landon, who was born almost completely deaf, has decided to dress up as his real-life superhero: Jay Rubinstein, M.D., Ph.D., a physician-scientist at Seattle Children’s Hospital who performed the surgeries that have enabled the boy to hear.


Basic Science Finds New Clue to Bipolar Disorder

Posted on by

Greek comedy tragedy play masks -- altered with ATCGs to create the shadows and double helix to create the ties.We know that heredity, along with environment, plays an important role in many mental illnesses. For example, studies have revealed that if one identical twin has bipolar disorder, the chance of the other being affected is about 60%. There are similar observations for autism, schizophrenia, and major depression. But finding the genes that predispose to these conditions has proven very tricky.

Now, an NIH-funded team at Baylor College of Medicine has demonstrated for the first time that extra copies of a gene that codes for a protein called Shank3 can cause manic episodes similar to those seen in some types of bipolar disorder [1]. The researchers initially tested their hypothesis in mice and then, building upon those findings, went on to find extra copies of the SHANK3 gene in two human patients—one with seizures and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and another with seizures and bipolar disorder.


Previous Page Next Page