Skip to main content

epidemic

Zika Virus: An Emerging Health Threat

Posted on by

Credit: Kraemer et al. eLife 2015;4:e08347

For decades, the mosquito-transmitted Zika virus was mainly seen in equatorial regions of Africa and Asia, where it caused a mild, flu-like illness and rash in some people. About 10 years ago, the picture began to expand with the appearance of Zika outbreaks in the Pacific islands. Then, last spring, Zika popped up in South America, where it has so far infected more than 1 million Brazilians and been tentatively linked to a steep increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly, a very serious condition characterized by a small head and brain [1]. And Zika’s disturbing march may not stop there.

In a new study in the journal The Lancet, infectious disease modelers calculate that Zika virus has the potential to spread across warmer and wetter parts of the Western Hemisphere as local mosquitoes pick up the virus from infected travelers and then spread the virus to other people [2]. The study suggests that Zika virus could eventually reach regions of the United States in which 60 percent of our population lives. This highlights the need for NIH and its partners in the public and private sectors to intensify research on Zika virus and to look for new ways to treat the disease and prevent its spread.


How Influenza Pandemics Occur

Posted on by

Credit: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH

Flu season is upon us! Check out this NIH video to see how these pandemics emerge and spread new flu viruses around the globe.


The Diabetes Threat

Posted on by

The number of Americans diagnosed with type 2 diabetes rose from 1.5 million in 1958 to 18.8 million in 2010. That’s an increase of epidemic proportions. Even more disturbing, another 7 million Americans have type 2 diabetes, but don’t know it and, consequently, can’t take steps to control the disease. Altogether, over 8% of the U.S. population now has this potentially deadly metabolic condition.

  • Type 2 diabetes wreaks havoc on the body by raising the levels of glucose in the blood, increasing the risk of blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, nerve damage, and even Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be called diabetes. 79 million U.S. adults age 20 and older have pre-diabetes.
  • NIH studies have shown that losing just 6–7% of body weight and increasing physical activity can prevent or delay pre-diabetes from progressing to diabetes. 85% of people with diabetes are overweight.

Photo of a pair of sneakers with the text "November is National Diabetes Month -  Be Active - Make a plan to live well."


A View of the U.S. Obesity Epidemic

Posted on by

Map showing Percent of Obese (BMI > 30) in U.S. Adults in 1985

 

Map showing Percent of Obese (BMI > 30) in U.S. Adults in 1995 by state

 

Map showing Percent of Obese (BMI > 30) in U.S. Adults in 2005 by state

 

Map showing Percent of Obese (BMI > 30) in U.S. Adults in 2010 by state

These snapshots reveal a very disturbing trend: the rise in obesity in the US from 1985 to 2010. Today one third of adults in the US are obese, another third are overweight.

Because obesity has risen to epidemic levels—causing devastating and costly health problems, reducing life expectancy, and provoking stigma and discrimination—the NIH has established the NIH Obesity Research Task Force to accelerate progress in obesity research. For example, why are some individuals more susceptible to obesity? Can knowledge of biology and behavior be leveraged to develop better intervention strategies? What strategies work? For whom? Can these approaches be scaled up?