New Strategies in Battle Against Antibiotic Resistance

Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteria

Caption: Colorized scanning-electron micrograph showing carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae interacting with a human white blood cell.
Credit: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH

Over the past year, the problem of antibiotic resistance has received considerable attention, with concerns being raised by scientists, clinicians, public health officials, and many others around the globe. These bacteria are found not only in hospitals, but in a wide range of community settings. In the United States alone, antibiotic-resistant bacteria cause roughly 2 million infections per year, and 23,000 deaths [1].

In light of such daunting statistics, the need for action at the highest levels is clear, as is demonstrated by an Executive Order issued today by the President. Fighting antibiotic resistance is both a public health and national security priority. The White House has joined together with leaders from government, academia, and public health to create a multi-pronged approach to combat antibiotic resistance. Two high-level reports released today—the White House’s National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (CARB) and the complementary President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) Report to the President on Combating Antibiotic Resistance—outline a series of bold steps aimed at addressing this growing public health threat.

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Weighing Surgical Options for Breast Cancer

Women in pink

Stock image

An increasing number of women with cancer in one breast are choosing to have both breasts surgically removed in hopes of reducing the chance of developing cancer in the unaffected breast. But does this approach—called bilateral, or double, mastectomy—really improve the odds of survival? A new NIH-funded study indicates that, for the vast majority of women, it does not [1].

A research team led by Allison Kurian, an oncologist at Stanford University School of Medicine, and Scarlett Gomez, an epidemiologist at the Cancer Prevention Institute of California in Fremont, used the California Cancer Registry to study the 10-year survival outcomes of patients diagnosed with early-stage cancer (stages 0–III) in one breast, between 1998 and 2011.

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Snapshots of Life: Behold the Beauty of the Eye

Colorized cross section of a mouse eye

Credit: Bryan William Jones and Robert E. Marc, University of Utah

The eye is a complex marvel of nature. In fact, there are some 70 to 80 kinds of cells in the mammalian retina. This image beautifully illuminates the eye’s complexity, on a cellular level—showing how these cells are arranged and wired together to facilitate sight.

“Reading” the image from left to right, we first find the muscle cells, in peach, that move the eye in its socket. The green layer, next, is the sclera—the white part of the eye. The spongy-looking layers that follow provide blood to the retina. The thin layer of yellow is the retinal pigment epithelium. The photoreceptors, in shades of pink, detect photons and transmit the information to the next layer down: the bipolar and horizontal cells (purple). From the bipolar cells, information flows to the amacrine and ganglion cells (blue, green, and turquoise) and then out of the retina via the optic nerve (the white plume that seems to billow out across the upper-right side of the eye), which transmits data to the brain for processing.

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Team Approach Helps Teen Depression

Team of Support

Stock photo

As many as one in five U.S. teenagers experience an episode of major depression by the time they turn 18. Sadly, depression among teens often goes unrecognized, increasing the risk of suicide, substance abuse, and many other problems. Even among those who are diagnosed, few receive proper treatment. But now there’s a ray of hope from a new NIH-funded study that’s found success using a team approach that pairs depressed teens and their parents with a counselor [1].

Faced with a shortage of psychiatrists who specialize in child mental health, a multidisciplinary team from the Seattle Children’s Research Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine, and Group Health in Seattle decided to use a strategy called “collaborative care” to treat depressed teenagers. There are more than 70 clinical trials showing that team-based care approaches work well for adults with depression, but there were only two such previous studies in teens—and results were mixed.

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Cool Videos: Heart Attack

Blood Clots Video screenshot

Up next in our scientific film fest is an original music video, straight from the Big Apple. Created by researchers at The Rockefeller University, this song-and-dance routine provides an entertaining—and informative—look at how blood clots form, their role in causing heart attacks, and what approaches are being tried to break up these clots.

Before (or after!) you hit “play,” it might help to take a few moments to review the scientists’ description of their efforts: the key to saving the lives of heart attack victims lies in the molecules that control how blood vessels become clogged. This molecular biomedicine music video explains how ischemic injury can be prevented shortly after heart attack symptoms begin: clot blocking. The science is the collaborative work of Dr. Barry Coller of Rockefeller, Dr. Craig Thomas and his colleagues at the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and Dr. Marta Filizola and her Mount Sinai colleagues.

Links:

Laboratory of Blood and Vascular Biology, The Rockefeller University

Filizola Laboratory, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Center for Clinical and Translational Science, The Rockefeller University

Clinical and Translational Science Awards (NCATS/NIH)

NIH Common Fund Video Competition

NIH support: Common Fund; National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences