Moving Toward Answers in ME/CFS

Woman in bed

Thinkstock/Katarzyna Bialasiewicz

Imagine going to work or school every day, working out at the gym, spending time with family and friends—basically, living your life in a full and vigorous way. Then one day, you wake up, feeling sick. A bad cold maybe, or perhaps the flu. A few days pass, and you think it should be over—but it’s not, you still feel achy and exhausted. Now imagine that you never get better— plagued by unrelenting fatigue not relieved by sleep. Any exertion just makes you worse. You are forced to leave your job or school and are unable to participate in any of your favorite activities; some days you can’t even get out of bed. The worst part is that your doctors don’t know what is wrong and nothing seems to help.

Unfortunately, this is not fiction, but reality for at least a million Americans—who suffer from a condition that carries the unwieldy name of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), a perplexing disease that biomedical research desperately needs to unravel [1]. Very little is currently known about what causes ME/CFS or its biological basis [2]. Among the many possibilities that need to be explored are problems in cellular metabolism and changes in the immune system.

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Is Social Media Making Us Lonelier?

Social mediaInitially, most of us thought that Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and other social media applications would help to bring people together. And, yes, in many instances that has been true. Such apps have made it possible—even simple—to catch up with former classmates living thousands of miles away, share a video of your baby’s first steps with relatives near and far, or strike up new acquaintances while discussing the stock market or last night’s ballgame. Yet, a new NIH-funded study suggests that social media may also have the power to make people feel left out and alone.

Based on a nationwide survey of more than 1,700 young adults, researchers found that individuals who were the heaviest users of social media were two to three times more likely to feel socially isolated than those who used little to no social media [1]. And that’s a concern to those of us in the medical field: previous research has linked social isolation to worsening physical and mental health, and even an increased risk of death [2,3]. In fact, some experts have gone so far as to label loneliness a major public health concern.

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Snapshots of Life: Tales from the (Intestinal) Crypt!

Caption: This “spooky” video ends with a scientific image of intestinal crypts (blue and green) plus organoids made from cultured crypt stem cells (pink). 

As Halloween approaches, some of you might be thinking about cueing up the old TV series “Tales from the Crypt” and diving into its Vault of Horror for a few hours. But today I’d like to share the story of a quite different and not nearly so scary kind of crypt: the crypts of Lieberkühn, more commonly called intestinal crypts.

This confocal micrograph depicts a row of such crypts (marked in blue and green) lining a mouse colon. In mice, as well as in humans, the intestines contain millions of crypts, each of which has about a half-dozen stem cells at its base that are capable of regenerating the various types of tissues that make up these tiny glands. What makes my tale of the crypt particularly interesting are the oval structures (pink), which are organoids that have been engineered from cultured crypt stem cells and then transplanted into a mouse model. If you look at the organoids closely, you’ll see Paneth cells (aqua blue), which are immune cells that support the stem cells and protect the intestines from bacterial invasion.

A winner in the 2016 “Image Awards” at the Koch Institute Public Galleries, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, this image was snapped by Jatin Roper, a physician-scientist in the lab of Omer Yilmaz, with the help of his MIT collaborator Tuomas Tammela. Roper and his colleagues have been making crypt organoids for a few years by placing the stem cells in a special 3D chamber, where they are bathed with the right protein growth factors at the right time to spur them to differentiate into the various types of cells found in a crypt.

Once the organoids are developmentally complete, Roper can inject them into mice and watch them take up residence. Then he can begin planning experiments.

For example, Roper’s group is now considering using the organoids to examine how high-fat and low-calorie diets affect intestinal function in mice. Another possibility is to use similar organoids to monitor the effect of aging on the colon or to test which of a wide array of targeted therapies might work best for a particular individual with colon cancer.

Links:

Video: Gut Reaction (Jatin Roper)

Jatin Roper (Tufts Medical Center, Boston)

Omer Yilmaz (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge)

The Koch Institute Galleries (MIT)

NIH Support: National Cancer Institute; National Institute on Aging

Summer Reading Suggestions from Scientists

Summer ReadingNow that we are in the “dog days” of summer, it’s time again to consider which books to pack (or load onto your e-reader) for your well-deserved getaway to the beach and beyond. With so many interesting titles published every year, it’s never easy to make recommendations. But I thought it might be fun to ask a few distinguished researchers to share a few of their favorite reads—both about science and other things in the world at large. Some might be classics; some might have just been published. It’s up to the guests to decide.

During the month of August, the NIH Director’s Blog will run a series of guest posts in which some of biomedical science’s most creative minds discuss one or two of the books they’ve been reading. I’m sure what they share will be informative, provocative, and possibly even provide you with a few more possibilities for your late summer reading list. So, please check out the blog next Tuesday for the first installment in our scientists’ summer reading series, which happens to be penned by an avid reader who also holds a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Can anyone guess who it is?

We Did It!

 

Survey ClosedThanks to your swift and overwhelming response, the NIH Director’s Blog survey is now closed.  I’d like to thank everyone who took the time to respond. Your feedback is greatly appreciated and will be used to help shape the blog as we move forward.