For some people, the smell of Mom’s home-baked pie, the sight of an ice cream truck, or the sound of sizzling French fries can trigger a feeding frenzy. But others find it much easier to resist such temptations. What’s the explanation?
You might think it’s sheer willpower. But a recent study in the journal Molecular Psychiatry suggests the answer to what fuels susceptibility to food cues may be far more complex, related to subtle differences in brain chemistry .
When people enroll in clinical trials to test new drugs, devices, or other interventions, they’re often informed that such research may not benefit them directly. But they’re also told what’s learned in those clinical trials may help others, both now and in the future. To honor these participants’ selfless commitment to advancing biomedical science, researchers have an ethical obligation to share the results of clinical trials in a swift and transparent manner.
But that’s not the only reason why sharing data from clinical trials is so important. Prompt dissemination of clinical trial results is essential for guiding future research. Furthermore, resources can be wasted and people may even stand to be harmed if the results of clinical trials are not fully disclosed in a timely manner. Without access to complete information about previous clinical trials—including data that are negative or inconclusive, researchers may launch similar studies that put participants at needless risk or expose them to ineffective interventions. And, if conclusions are distorted by failure to report results, incomplete knowledge can eventually make its way into clinical guidelines and, thereby, affect the care of a great many patients .
Caption: Magnified image of a hepatocyte: nuclei in blue; actin fibers in red, yellow, orange, and green. Credit: Donna Beer Stolz, University of Pittsburgh
The humble hepatocyte handles a lot of the body’s maintenance and clean up work. It detoxifies the blood, metabolizing medications and alcohol. It secretes important proteins that regulate carbohydrates and fats—including both the good and bad kinds of cholesterol. It’s also the most common cell in one of the few human organs that regenerate: the liver. When this organ is damaged, hepatocytes begin dividing to repair the tissue.
Its regenerative ability is just one reason that Donna Beer Stolz, a microscopist and cell biologist at the University of Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania, has been studying the hepatocyte for more than 20 years. She captured this image while conducting one of her experiments. As she was carefully scanning a dish of cells, one particular hepatocyte caught her eye. It was perfectly round. Struck by its symmetry and beauty, Stolz snapped pictures of the cell at different layers and then used software to reconstruct and color the image.
Caption: Osteoclast cells (red) carve a path through a knee joint (purple and white), enabling a blood vessel to supply the cells (yellow) needed to build new bone. Credit: Paul R. Odgren, University of Massachusetts Medical School
Bones are one of our body’s never-ending remodeling projects. Specialized cells, called osteoclasts, are constantly attaching to old bone and breaking it down, using acids to dissolve the calcium. In the wake of this demolition, bone-building cells, called osteoblasts, move in and deposit new minerals to patch and remodel the bone, maintaining its strength and durability.
Normally, these two types of cells strike a delicate balance between bone destruction and formation. But if this balance goes awry, it can lead to trouble. With osteoporosis, for example, bone removal exceeds formation, yielding progressively weaker bones that are prone to fracture.
Caption: Cocoa beans and cocoa powder, which are rich in antioxidant compounds called flavanols. Credit: Mars Inc.
As we get older, remembering new stuff—an updated computer password or the name of that person whom we met last night (or was it two nights ago?)—can bring a busy day to a head-scratching halt. But are these “senior moments” just something that we have to accept? Maybe not.
In a study published in Nature Neuroscience, a research team partially funded by NIH has provided evidence that changes in a specific brain region are associated with age-related memory loss . And they found that they could reverse this loss by boosting activity in this part of the brain, called the dentate gyrus. What’s especially interesting is that this boost came from a drink that was specially formulated to be rich in flavanols, a group of antioxidant compounds found in cocoa beans. Sounds like every chocolate lover’s dream! But let’s drill down a little deeper.