BRAIN: Launching America’s Next Moonshot

A stylized rocket headed toward a moon made of a human brain

Moonshot to the BRAIN

Some have called it America’s next moonshot. Indeed, like the historic effort that culminated with the first moon landing in 1969, the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative is a bold, ambitious endeavor that will require the energy of thousands of our nation’s most creative minds working together over the long haul.

Our goal? To produce the first dynamic view of the human brain in action, revealing how its roughly 86 billion neurons and its trillions of connections interact in real time. This new view will revolutionize our understanding of how we think, feel, learn, remember, and move, transforming efforts to help the more than 1 billion people worldwide who suffer from autism, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and other devastating brain disorders.

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Cool Videos: Rapping for Research

CTSAs Video ScreenshotMany entries in the NIH Common Fund video competition highlight particular research projects. But in the original rap video that I’m featuring today, a group of New York researchers deliver a message about the central importance of collaboration for moving scientific breakthroughs from the bench to the bedside.

Or, as the researchers themselves put it, “This video describes, in rap, the Weill Cornell Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC), a partnership of world-class academic institutions and health centers in New York City. The CTSC supports the translation of basic science research into better patient care that will improve our nation’s health. It fosters high-risk/high-reward research, enabling the development of transformative tools and methodologies, and filling fundamental knowledge gaps. The CTSC seeks to change academic culture to foster collaboration and was made possible by a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the NIH Common Fund, administered by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS).”

Links:

Weill Cornell Clinical and Translational Science Center

Clinical and Translational Science Awards (NCATS)

NIH Common Fund Video Competition

NIH support: Common Fund; National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

Creative Minds: The Muscle-Brain Connection

Muscle activity and brain functionThere’s mounting evidence that exercise has a powerful effect on the human brain. For example, many studies have shown that physical activity appears to reduce the incidence of depression. Exercise can also delay or possibly even prevent Alzheimer’s disease, as well as easing symptoms in people who have these disorders [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. But how, exactly, does getting our legs moving and our hearts pumping exert a positive influence on our brains?

Two scientists at Stanford University School of Medicine are out to get some answers to this important question. They have proposed that when we exercise, our muscles secrete a factor or combination of factors into the bloodstream, leading to structural and functional changes in the brain.

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New Strategies in Battle Against Antibiotic Resistance

Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteria

Caption: Colorized scanning-electron micrograph showing carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae interacting with a human white blood cell.
Credit: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH

Over the past year, the problem of antibiotic resistance has received considerable attention, with concerns being raised by scientists, clinicians, public health officials, and many others around the globe. These bacteria are found not only in hospitals, but in a wide range of community settings. In the United States alone, antibiotic-resistant bacteria cause roughly 2 million infections per year, and 23,000 deaths [1].

In light of such daunting statistics, the need for action at the highest levels is clear, as is demonstrated by an Executive Order issued today by the President. Fighting antibiotic resistance is both a public health and national security priority. The White House has joined together with leaders from government, academia, and public health to create a multi-pronged approach to combat antibiotic resistance. Two high-level reports released today—the White House’s National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (CARB) and the complementary President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) Report to the President on Combating Antibiotic Resistance—outline a series of bold steps aimed at addressing this growing public health threat.

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Weighing Surgical Options for Breast Cancer

Women in pink

Stock image

An increasing number of women with cancer in one breast are choosing to have both breasts surgically removed in hopes of reducing the chance of developing cancer in the unaffected breast. But does this approach—called bilateral, or double, mastectomy—really improve the odds of survival? A new NIH-funded study indicates that, for the vast majority of women, it does not [1].

A research team led by Allison Kurian, an oncologist at Stanford University School of Medicine, and Scarlett Gomez, an epidemiologist at the Cancer Prevention Institute of California in Fremont, used the California Cancer Registry to study the 10-year survival outcomes of patients diagnosed with early-stage cancer (stages 0–III) in one breast, between 1998 and 2011.

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