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How Our Brains Replay Memories

Posted on by Dr. Francis Collins

Retrieving a Memory
Caption: Encoding and replaying learned memory. Left panel shows the timed sequence of neurons firing in a part of a person’s brain involved in memory as it encodes the random pair of words, “crow” and “jeep.” Colors are assigned to different neurons to differentiate their firing within the sequence. Right panel shows a highly similar timed sequence of those same neurons firing just before a person given the word “jeep,” recalled and said the correct answer “crow.” Credit: Vaz AP, Science, 2020.

Note to my blog readers: the whole world is now facing a major threat from the COVID-19 pandemic. We at NIH are doing everything we can to apply the best and most powerful science to the development of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines, while also implementing public health measures to protect our staff and the patients in our hospital. This crisis is expected to span many weeks, and I will occasionally report on COVID-19 in this blog format. Meanwhile, science continues to progress on many other fronts—and so I will continue to try to bring you stories across a wide range of topics. Perhaps everyone can use a little break now and then from the coronavirus news? Today’s blog takes you into the intricacies of memory.

When recalling the name of an acquaintance, you might replay an earlier introduction, trying to remember the correct combination of first and last names. (Was it Scott James? Or James Scott?) Now, neuroscientists have found that in the split second before you come up with the right answer, your brain’s neurons fire in the same order as when you first learned the information [1].

This new insight into memory retrieval comes from recording the electrical activity of thousands of neurons in the brains of six people during memory tests of random word pairs, such as “jeep” and “crow.” While similar firing patterns had been described before in mice, the new study is the first to confirm that the human brain stores memories in specific sequences of neural activity that can be replayed again and again.

The new study, published in the journal Science, is the latest insight from neurosurgeon and researcher Kareem Zaghloul at NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Zaghloul’s team has for years been involved in an NIH Clinical Center study for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy whose seizures cannot be controlled with drugs.

As part of this work, his surgical team often temporarily places a 4 millimeter-by-4 millimeter array of tiny electrodes on the surface of the brains of the study’s participants. They do this in an effort to pinpoint brain tissues that may be the source of their seizures before performing surgery to remove them. With a patient’s informed consent to take part in additional research, the procedure also has led to a series of insights into what happens in the human brain when we make and later retrieve new memories.

Here’s how it works: The researchers record electrical currents as participants are asked to learn random word pairs presented to them on a computer screen, such as “cake” and “fox,” or “lime” and “camel.” After a period of rest, their brain activity is again recorded as they are given a word and asked to recall the matching word.

Last year, the researchers reported that the split second before a person got the right answer, tiny ripples of electrical activity appeared in two specific areas of the brain [2]. The team also had shown that, when a person correctly recalled a word pair, the brain showed patterns of activity that corresponded to those formed when he or she first learned to make a word association.

The new work takes this a step further. As study participants learned a word pair, the researchers noticed not only the initial rippling wave of electricity, but also that particular neurons in the brain’s cerebral cortex fired repeatedly in a sequential order. In fact, with each new word pair, the researchers observed unique firing patterns among the active neurons.

If the order of neuronal firing was essential for storing new memories, the researchers reasoned that the same would be true for correctly retrieving the information. And, indeed, that’s what they were able to show. For example, when individuals were shown “cake” for a second time, they replayed a very similar firing pattern to the one recorded initially for this word just milliseconds before correctly recalling the paired word “fox.”

The researchers then calculated the average sequence similarity between the firing patterns of learning and retrieval. They found that as a person recalled a word, those patterns gradually became more similar. Just before a correct answer was given, the recorded neurons locked onto the right firing sequence. That didn’t happen when a person gave an incorrect answer.

Further analysis confirmed that the exact order of neural firing was specific to each word pair. The findings show that our memories are encoded as unique sequences that must be replayed for accurate retrieval, though we still don’t understand the molecular mechanisms that undergird this.

Zaghloul reports that there’s still more to learn about how these processes are influenced by other factors such as our attention. It’s not yet known whether the brain replays sequences similarly when retrieving longer-term memories. Along with these intriguing insights into normal learning and memory, the researchers think this line of research will yield important clues as to what changes in people who suffer from memory disorders, with potentially important implications for developing the next generation of treatments.


[1] Replay of cortical spiking sequences during human memory retrieval. Vaz AP, Wittig JH Jr, Inati SK, Zaghloul KA. Science. 2020 Mar 6;367(6482):1131-1134.

[2] Coupled ripple oscillations between the medial temporal lobe and neocortex retrieve human memory. Vaz AP, Inati SK, Brunel N, Zaghloul KA. Science. 2019 Mar 1;363(6430):975-978.


Epilepsy Information Page (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/NIH)

Brain Basics (NINDS)

Zaghloul Lab (NINDS)

NIH Support: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Institute of General Medical Sciences


  • bandini says:

    is this true only for immediate memory recall or for delayed, 96-hour or more recall?

  • lorry says:

    is this true only for immediate memory recall or for delayed?

  • Usman Dabeer says:

    Thank you for sharing such good information.

  • DR. SAUMYA PANDEY (PH.D.) says:

    Memory-replays with amazing neuronal-cortical spiking/firing are indeed fascinating themes in the complex biomedical sciences field!
    The elegant display of memory-replays and brain’s neuronal-activity deserve an applause; future research investigating the precise relay and synaptic transmission of memory at different ages of life: embryonic vs neonatal vs early childhood vs adolescence vs young adult-stage and mature adult vs old-aged human study subjects, by therapeutic targeting of metabolic-biochemical signal transduction cascades including neuronal receptors, kinases, transcription factors, downstream target genes at specific regions of brain in normal vs symptomatic brain plaques/CSF fluids would yield novel research insights in the neurodegeneration/Alzheimers’/brain-tumor immunobiology field(s) with emphasis on rationale design of immunotherapeutic regimens and pharmacological scaffolds to fully elucidate the physiological and metabolically-aberrant pathophysiological basis of memory-related mental health issues in at-risk susceptible cohorts of ethnically disparate population subsets worldwide.
    Recently, despite the global Covid-19 scare, I had a brilliant opportunity of visiting an expert team of neurosurgeons at my homecountry India-based mental health/allied neurosciences center, and gained crirtical insights regarding the complexities involved in neuronal diseases, including memory-losses/Alzheimers and learnt about non-invasive, precision-based, cost-effective gamma-knife neuroradiosurgery in brain tumor-patients of diverse genetic profiles including Indian (North+South Indian), American (especially cases from Virginia, Minnessotta, etc.), and explored future clinical research avenues in developing patient-friendly public health research protocols by therapeutic targeting of complex cell-signaling cascades, including Toll-like receptors/Autophagy/Ceramide-Sphingolipids, etc. to eventually develop predictive biomarkers in clinical management of neuronal disorders, including memory-disorders, migraine, Alzheimer’s, brain tumors (benign vs metastatic/advanced).
    In this context, the expert highlights by Dr. Collins further propeled my inherent scientific temperament for expanding my research horizons in the biomedical sciences/public health arenas with current emphasis on Neurosciences/Neurophysiology-pharmacology/brain tumorigenesis, Overall, human memory immunobiology has been convincingly depicted in this elegant scientific snapshot!

  • negian says:

    It was a best article which I had gone through, thanks for sharing with us!

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