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Alzheimer’s Disease: Tau Protein Predicts Early Memory Loss

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PET imaging of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease

Caption: PET scan images show distribution of tau (top panel) and beta-amyloid (bottom panel) across a brain with early Alzheimer’s disease. Red indicates highest levels of protein binding, dark blue the lowest, yellows and oranges indicate moderate binding.
Credit: Brier et al., Sci Transl Med

In people with Alzheimer’s disease, changes in the brain begin many years before the first sign of memory problems. Those changes include the gradual accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides and tau proteins, which form plaques and tangles that are considered hallmarks of the disease. While amyloid plaques have received much attention as an early indicator of disease, until very recently there hadn’t been any way during life to measure the buildup of tau protein in the brain. As a result, much less is known about the timing and distribution of tau tangles and its relationship to memory loss.

Now, in a study published in Science Translational Medicine, an NIH-supported research team has produced some of the first maps showing where tau proteins build up in the brains of people with early Alzheimer’s disease [1]. The new findings suggest that while beta-amyloid remains a reliable early sign of Alzheimer’s disease, tau may be a more informative predictor of a person’s cognitive decline and potential response to treatment.


Creative Minds: Of Arsenic and Misfolded Proteins

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John Hanna

John Hanna

Taking out the trash is a must in every household. Inside our cells, it’s also essential because if defective proteins are not properly disposed of, they can accumulate and make a mess of the cell’s inner workings, leading to health problems.

John Hanna, a physician-scientist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, is on a quest to study the cell’s trash disposal system in greater detail. In particular, this 2014 NIH Director’s Early Independence awardee wants to learn more about how cells identify proteins that need to be discarded, how such proteins are steered towards the molecular garbage can, and how, when the process breaks down, neurodegenerative conditions, cancers, and other diseases can arise.

That’s a complex challenge, so Hanna will start by zeroing in on one particular component of cellular waste management—the component that clears out proteins damaged by arsenic. Although arsenic is notorious for being the poison of choice in countless true crime shows and mystery novels, this semi-metallic element is found naturally in soil, water, air, and some foods.


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