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Study Finds 1 in 10 Healthcare Workers with Mild COVID Have Lasting Symptoms

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People showing symtoms of anosmia, fatigue, and ageusia
Credit: Getty Images

It’s become increasingly clear that even healthy people with mild cases of COVID-19 can battle a constellation of symptoms that worsen over time—or which sometimes disappear only to come right back. These symptoms are part of what’s called “Long COVID Syndrome.”

Now, a new study of relatively young, healthy adult healthcare workers in Sweden adds needed information on the frequency of this Long COVID Syndrome. Published in the journal JAMA, the study found that just over 1 in 10 healthcare workers who had what at first seemed to be a relatively mild bout of COVID-19 were still coping with at least one moderate to severe symptom eight months later [1]. Those symptoms—most commonly including loss of smell and taste, fatigue, and breathing problems—also negatively affected the work and/or personal lives of these individuals.

These latest findings come from the COVID-19 Biomarker and Immunity (COMMUNITY) study, led by Charlotte Thålin, Danderyd Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm. The study, launched a year ago, enlisted 2,149 hospital employees to learn more about immunity to SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

After collecting blood samples from participants, the researchers found that about 20 percent already had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, evidence of a past infection. Thålin and team continued collecting blood samples every four months from all participants, who also completed questionnaires about their wellbeing.

Intrigued by recent reports in the medical literature that many people hospitalized with COVID-19 can have persistent symptoms for months after their release, the researchers decided to take a closer look in their COMMUNITY cohort. They did so last January during their third round of follow up.

This group included 323 mostly female healthcare workers, median age of 43. The researchers compared symptoms in this group following mild COVID-19 to the 1,072 mostly female healthcare workers in the study (median age 47 years) who hadn’t had COVID-19. They wanted to find out if those with mild COVID-19 coped with more and longer-lasting symptoms of feeling unwell than would be expected in an otherwise relatively healthy group of people. These symptoms included familiar things such as fatigue, muscle pain, trouble sleeping, and problems breathing.

Their findings show that 26 percent of those who had mild COVID-19 reported at least one moderate to severe symptom that lasted more than two months. That’s compared to 9 percent of participants without COVID-19. What’s more, 11 percent of the individuals with mild COVID-19 had at least one debilitating symptom that lasted for at least eight months. In the group without COVID-19, any symptoms of feeling unwell resolved relatively quickly.

The most common symptoms in the COVID-19 group were loss of taste or smell, fatigue, and breathing problems. In this group, there was no apparent increase in other symptoms that have been associated with COVID-19, including “brain fog,” problems with memory or attention, heart palpitations, or muscle and joint pain.

The researchers have noted that the Swedish healthcare workers represent a relatively young and healthy group of working individuals. Yet, many of them continued to suffer from lasting symptoms related to mild COVID-19. It’s a reminder that COVID-19 can and, in fact, is having a devastating impact on the lives and livelihoods of adults who are at low risk for developing severe and life-threatening COVID-19. If we needed one more argument for getting young people vaccinated, this is it.

At NIH, efforts have been underway for some time to identify the causes of Long COVID. In fact, a virtual workshop was held last winter with more than 1,200 participants to discuss what’s known and to fill in key gaps in our knowledge of Long COVID syndrome, which is clinically known as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). Recently, a workshop summary was published [2]. As workshops and studies like this one from Sweden help to define the problem, the hope is to learn one day how to treat or prevent this terrible condition. The NIH is now investing more than $1 billion in seeking those answers.

References:

[1] Symptoms and functional impairment assessed 8 Months after mild COVID-19 among health care workers. Havervall S, Rosell A, Phillipson M, Mangsbo SM, Nilsson P, Hober S, Thålin C. JAMA. 2021 Apr 7.

[2] Toward understanding COVID-19 recovery: National Institutes of Health workshop on postacute COVID-19. Lerner A, et al. Ann Intern Med, 2021 March 30.

Links:

COVID-19 Research (NIH)

Charlotte Thålin (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden)


Ceremonial Nobel Presentation

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Ceremonial Nobel Presentation for Harvey Alter
It’s been such a strange year this 2020. For the first time since World War II, the 2020 Nobel Laureates didn’t receive their Nobel prizes at special presentations in Stockholm and Oslo on December 10. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the December 10 award presentations were held ceremonially at a number of small virtual gatherings around the world. At NIH, we streamed a ceremonial presentation in the Natcher Building for our own Harvey Alter, a senior scholar in the NIH Clinical Center’s Transfusion Medicine Department. Dr. Alter is a co-recipient of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contributions in discovering the hepatitis C virus. He shares the prize with Michael Houghton, University of Alberta, Calgary; and Charles Rice, Rockefeller University, New York. Presenting the Nobel Prize medal to Dr. Alter on behalf of the King of Sweden was Swedish Ambassador to the United States, Karin Olofsdotter. In this photo, Dr. Alter (center) displays his Nobel medal, flanked by Ambassador Olafsdotter (left) and me (right). Credit: NIH

Celebrating 2018 Nobel Laureates

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Drs. Francis Collins, Peter WT Pisters, and Jim Allison

It was an honor to attend the Nobel Symposium hosted by the Embassy of Sweden in the U.S. on November 13, 2018. The symposium was held at the House of Sweden in Washington, D.C. to celebrate the 2018 American Nobel Laureates. Four of this year’s six Nobel Laureates were in attendance. Here, I’m standing with Peter WT Pisters (middle), president of the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston; and Jim Allison (right), also with MD Anderson and a co-recipient of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Allison played a leading role in developing cancer immunotherapy. Credit: @ppisters


Cardiometabolic Disease: Big Data Tackles a Big Health Problem

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Cardiometabolic risk lociMore and more studies are popping up that demonstrate the power of Big Data analyses to get at the underlying molecular pathology of some of our most common diseases. A great example, which may have flown a bit under the radar during the summer holidays, involves cardiometabolic disease. It’s an umbrella term for common vascular and metabolic conditions, including hypertension, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, excess belly fat, and inflammation. All of these components of cardiometabolic disease can increase a person’s risk for a heart attack or stroke.

In the study, an international research team tapped into the power of genomic data to develop clearer pictures of the complex biocircuitry in seven types of vascular and metabolic tissue known to be affected by cardiometabolic disease: the liver, the heart’s aortic root, visceral abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat, internal mammary artery, skeletal muscle, and blood. The researchers found that while some circuits might regulate the level of gene expression in just one tissue, that’s often not the case. In fact, the researchers’ computational models show that such genetic circuitry can be organized into super networks that work together to influence how multiple tissues carry out fundamental life processes, such as metabolizing glucose or regulating lipid levels. When these networks are perturbed, perhaps by things like inherited variants that affect gene expression, or environmental influences such as a high-carb diet, sedentary lifestyle, the aging process, or infectious disease, the researchers’ modeling work suggests that multiple tissues can be affected, resulting in chronic, systemic disorders including cardiometabolic disease.