Posted on by Dr. Francis Collins
This fluorescent worm makes for much more than a mesmerizing video. It showcases a significant technological leap forward in our ability to capture in real time the firing of individual neurons in a living, freely moving animal.
As this Caenorhabditis elegans worm undulates, 113 neurons throughout its brain and body (green/yellow spots) get brighter and darker as each neuron activates and deactivates. In fact, about halfway through the video, you can see streaks tracking the positions of individual neurons (blue/purple-colored lines) from one frame to the next. Until now, it would have been technologically impossible to capture this “speed of life” with such clarity.
With funding from the NIH-led Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies® (BRAIN) Initiative, Elizabeth Hillman at Columbia University’s Zuckerman Institute, New York, has pioneered the pairing of a 3D live-imaging microscope with an ultra-fast camera. This pairing, showcased above, is a technique called Swept Confocally Aligned Planar Excitation (SCAPE) microscopy.
Since first demonstrating SCAPE in February 2015 , Hillman and her team have worked hard to improve, refine, and expand the approach. Recently, they used SCAPE 1.0 to image how proprioceptive neurons in fruit-fly larvae sense body position while crawling. Now, as described in Nature Methods, they introduce SCAPE “2.0,” with boosted resolution and a much faster camera—enabling 3D imaging at speeds hundreds of times faster than conventional microscopes . To track a very wiggly worm, the researchers image their target 25 times a second!
As with the first-generation SCAPE, version 2.0 uses a scanning mirror to sweep a slanted sheet of light across a sample. This same mirror redirects light coming from the illuminated plane to focus onto a stationary high-speed camera. The approach lets SCAPE grab 3D imaging at very high speeds, while also causing very little photobleaching compared to conventional point-scanning microscopes, reducing sample damage that often occurs during time-lapse microscopy.
Like SCAPE 1.0, since only a single, stationary objective lens is used, the upgraded 2.0 system doesn’t need to hold, move, or disturb a sample during imaging. This flexibility enables scientists to use SCAPE in a wide range of experiments where they can present stimuli or probe an animal’s behavior—all while imaging how the underlying cells drive and depict those behaviors.
The SCAPE 2.0 paper shows the system’s biological versatility by also recording the beating heart of a zebrafish embryo at record-breaking speeds. In addition, SCAPE 2.0 can rapidly image large fixed, cleared, and expanded tissues such as the retina, brain, and spinal cord—enabling tracing of the shape and connectivity of cellular circuits. Hillman and her team are dedicated to exporting their technology; they provide guidance and a parts list for SCAPE 2.0 so that researchers can build their own version using inexpensive off-the-shelf parts.
Watching worms wriggling around may remind us of middle-school science class. But to neuroscientists, these images represent progress toward understanding the nervous system in action, literally at the speed of life!
 . Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms. Bouchard MB, Voleti V, Mendes CS, Lacefield C, et al Nature Photonics. 2015;9(2):113-119.
 Real-time volumetric microscopy of in vivo dynamics and large-scale samples with SCAPE 2.0. Voleti V, Patel KB, Li W, Campos CP, et al. Nat Methods. 2019 Sept 27;16:1054–1062.
Using Research Organisms to Study Health and Disease (National Institute of General Medical Sciences/NIH)
Hillman Lab (Columbia University, New York)
NIH Support: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute