It’s well known that preeclampsia, a condition characterized by a progressive rise in a pregnant woman’s blood pressure and appearance of protein in the urine, can have negative, even life-threatening impacts on the health of both mother and baby. Now, NIH-funded researchers have documented that preeclampsia is also taking a very high toll on our nation’s economic well-being. In fact, their calculations show that, in 2012 alone, preeclampsia-related care cost the U.S. health care system more than $2 billion.
These findings are especially noteworthy because preeclampsia rates in the United States have been steadily rising over the past 30 years, fueled in part by increases in average maternal age and weight. This highlights the urgent need for more research to develop new and more effective strategies to protect the health of all mothers and their babies.
When thinking about your health, or the health of your children, you’re probably not thinking of the placenta. This often neglected, yet vital, pancake-shaped organ develops during pregnancy. It adheres to the inside surface of the uterus and guides development; partly maternal, partly fetal, it delivers food and oxygen to the growing fetus via the umbilical cord and removes waste products—among other vital functions. Yet, the placenta may be even more important to the health of mother and child than we’ve previously imagined.
Until recently, the uterus and the placenta were thought to be germ-free and sterile—to keep the baby safe from infection. But at just one week old, babies have a complex collection of microbes in their guts. Where do those bacteria come from? It was thought that a baby received its first dose of bacteria as it passed through the vagina—or from the mother’s skin, if the child was born via C-section. But Kjersti Aagaard, a 2007 recipient of a NIH Director’s New Innovator Award and an obstetrician and associate professor of gynecology at Baylor and the Texas Children’s Hospital, began to suspect there was more to the story.