When Sanjay Basu was growing up in Arizona in the 1980s, his mother contracted a devastating lung infection known as valley fever. Caused by a fungus (called Coccidioides) common in the southwest United States, the condition often affects construction or agricultural workers who inhale the fungal spores while working the soil. Basu’s mother didn’t work in agriculture or construction, but the family did happen to live near a construction site. She spent about nine years in and out of intensive care units battling her illness. She survived, but still has difficulty breathing.
This wrenching experience gave Basu a first-hand appreciation for the social determinants of health—the conditions in which people live and the myriad internal and external forces that dynamically shape them. Now an assistant professor at Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, Basu has dedicated his career to studying the social determinants of health disparities, health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations. He recently received an NIH Director’s New Innovator Award to examine U.S. social assistance programs and their effects on a range of health outcomes over the last 40-plus years. He’ll consider eight federal and state programs—including income, housing, and food assistance programs—that reach more than 1 in 3 Americans.