Peanut Allergy: Early Exposure Is Key to Prevention

Kids and peanuts

Credit: Thinkstock (BananaStock, Kenishirotie)

With peanut allergy on the rise in the United States, you’ve probably heard parents strategizing about ways to keep their kids from developing this potentially dangerous condition. But is it actually possible to prevent peanut allergy, and, if so, how do you go about doing it?

There’s an entirely new strategy emerging now! A group representing 26 professional organizations, advocacy groups, and federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has just issued new clinical guidelines aimed at preventing peanut allergy [1]. The guidelines suggest that parents should introduce most babies to peanut-containing foods around the time they begin eating other solid foods, typically 4 to 6 months of age. While early introduction is especially important for kids at particular risk for developing allergies, it is also recommended that high-risk infants—those with a history of severe eczema and/or egg allergy—undergo a blood or skin-prick test before being given foods containing peanuts. The test results can help to determine how, or even if, peanuts should be introduced in the youngsters’ diets.

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Peanut Allergies: Prevention by Early Exposure?

Peanuts and peanut products

Credit: United States Department of Agriculture

It might seem obvious that the best way to avoid a food allergy is to steer clear of the offending item. But a recent study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, suggests that just the opposite may be true: strict avoidance from a very early age may be the wrong strategy when it comes to kids at high risk of developing an allergy to peanuts [1].

The study found that feeding peanut-rich foods to some high-risk infants actually helps their developing immune systems learn to tolerate peanuts better, apparently helping them avoid this serious allergy later in life. While it’s too soon to recommend stepping up peanut consumption among all babies, the findings provide striking new insights into how food allergies develop and how they might be avoided.

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