The Amazing Brain: Deep Brain Stimulation for OCD
Posted on by Dr. Francis Collins
The winners of the “Show Us Your BRAINs!” Photo and Video contest are chosen each year based on their eye-catching ability to capture the creative spirit of the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies® (BRAIN) Initiative. This year’s first-place video certainly fits the bill while highlighting encouraging efforts to help people with the most severe and hard-to-treat form of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), a psychiatric illness marked by recurrent unwanted or distressing thoughts and repetitive behaviors.
Most cases of OCD can be effectively treated with a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. But for a small subset of individuals with severe, intractable, and debilitating OCD, other approaches are needed.
The video shows a 360-degree view of the brain of a person with severe OCD. At about 15 seconds into the video, the brain’s outer surface fades away to reveal the critical brain structures that serve as landmarks for targeting the disorder.
These include the anterior commissure (orange), helping to transfer information between the brain’s two hemispheres; caudate nucleus (dark blue), involved in various higher neurological functions, such as learning and memory; putamen (light blue), which plays a role in learning and motor control; and ventral striatum (yellow), part of the brain’s circuitry for decision-making and reward-related behavior.
This person is a participant in a clinical trial to alleviate OCD symptoms using deep brain stimulation (DBS). In DBS, electrodes are implanted deep in the brain to deliver electrical impulses that regulate abnormal, repetitive brain impulses. The straight lines (purple) are wire leads, each bearing a single electrode topped with an electrical contact (white). These leads connect to a pacemaker-like device implanted in the chest (not shown) that delivers electrical impulses that ease the patient’s distressing thoughts and unwanted behaviors.
The video took a true team effort. Nicole Provenza, a graduate student in the lab of David Borton, Brown University, Providence, RI, produced it with the project’s principal investigator Wayne Goodman, lead neurosurgeon Sameer Sheth, and research assistant Raissa Mathura, all at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. Another vital contributor was Noam Peled, MGH/HST Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA.
The team produced the video primarily to help explain how DBS works for people with OCD. But such visualizations are also helping them to see where exactly in the brain electrodes have been placed during surgery in each of their study participants.
Right now, the location of DBS electrodes can’t be imaged using MRI. So CT scans must be taken after surgery that combine X-ray images from different angles. The researchers then carefully align the MRI and CT scans and load them into special software called Multi-Modality Visualization Tool (MMVT). The software enables simultaneous 3D visualization and analysis of brain imaging data captured in different ways.
Using MMVT, Provenza and colleagues labelled the brain regions of interest and spun the image around to see just where those leads were placed in this particular individual with OCD. They then captured many still images, which they stitched together to produce this remarkable video.
Deep brain stimulation is used to treat Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. But earlier attempts to treat severe and intractable OCD with DBS haven’t yet succeeded in the way researchers had hoped. This innovative team seeks to change that in the future by using more responsive and adaptive systems, capable of sensing the abnormal brain impulses as they happen and responding at just the right time .
 The case for adaptive neuromodulation to treat severe intractable mental disorders. Provenza NR, Matteson ER, Allawala AB, Barrios-Anderson A, Sheth SA, Viswanathan A, McIngvale E, Storch EA, Frank MJ, McLaughlin NCR, Cohn JF, Goodman WK, Borton DA. Front Neurosci. 2019 Feb 26;13:152.
Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies® (BRAIN) Initiative (NIH)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (National Institute of Mental Health/NIH)
Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease and other Movement Disorders (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/NIH)
Borton Lab (Brown University, Providence, RI)
Wayne Goodman (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston)
Noam Peled (MGH/HST Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA)
Show Us Your BRAINs! Photo and Video Contest (BRAIN Initiative/NIH)
NIH Support: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Institute of Mental Health
Studies of Dogs, Mice, and People Provide Clues to OCD
Posted on by Dr. Francis Collins
Chances are you know someone with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It’s estimated that more than 2 million Americans struggle with this mental health condition, characterized by unwanted recurring thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors, such as excessive hand washing or constant counting of objects. While we know that OCD tends to run in families, it’s been frustratingly difficult to identify specific genes that influence OCD risk.
Now, an international research team, partly funded by NIH, has made progress thanks to an innovative genomic approach involving dogs, mice, and people. The strategy allowed them to uncover four genes involved in OCD that turn out to play a role in synapses, where nerve impulses are transmitted between neurons in the brain. While more research is needed to confirm the findings and better understand the molecular mechanisms of OCD, these findings offer important new leads that could point the way to more effective treatments.