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Who Knew? A Neural Circuit Just for Itching

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Itch line (red) with touch, pain, and temperature lines (white) going through DRG before going to the spinal cord.

Itch-inducing agents activate a discrete population of peripheral sensory neurons that produce a signaling molecule called natriuretic polypeptide b (Nppb). The release of Nppb from these primary pruriceptive neurons triggers a dedicated itch biocircuit to generate the sensation of itch. [Images courtesy of Mark Hoon, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH]

The occasional itch—be it a bug bite or rash—is annoying. But there are millions of people with chronic itching conditions, like eczema and psoriasis, who are constantly scratching their skin. This is more than a little irritation—it drastically reduces their quality of life and is a perpetual distraction. Current anti-itch treatments include topical corticosteroid creams, oral antihistamines, and various lotions. But researchers at NIH have gone beyond the skin’s surface and discovered a critical molecule at the root of that itchy feeling [1].


New Insight into Parkinson’s Disease

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Photos of a healthy brain cell and a brain cell affected by Parkinson's

Caption: (LEFT) A healthy neuron with the alpha-synuclein (green) protein diffusely spread in the cell. The bright reddish dots are the garbage disposal lysosomes with alpha-synuclein entering, which gives them an orange hue. (RIGHT) This is a sick neuron from a LRRK2 brain. The lysosomes are enlarged and puffy because the alpha-synuclein is stuck outside and unable to enter the trash.
Credit: Samantha Orenstein and Dr. Esperanza Arias, Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York

I’m blogging today to tell you about a new NIH funded report [1] describing a possible cause of Parkinson’s disease: a clog in the protein disposal system.

You probably already know something about Parkinson’s disease. Many of us know individuals who have been stricken, and actor Michael J. Fox, who suffers from it, has done a great job talking about and spreading awareness of it. Parkinson’s is a progressive neurodegenerative condition in which the dopamine-producing cells in the brain region called the substantia nigra begin to sicken and die. These cells are critical for controlling movement; their death causes shaking, difficulty moving, and the characteristic slow gait. Patients can have trouble swallowing, chewing, and speaking. As the disease progresses, cognitive and behavioral problems take hold—depression, personality shifts, sleep disturbances.


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