It’s hard to believe, but it’s been almost 15 years since we successfully completed the Human Genome Project, ahead of schedule and under budget. I was proud to stand with my international colleagues in a celebration at the Library of Congress on April 14, 2003 (which happens to be my birthday), to announce that we had stitched together the very first reference sequence of the human genome at a total cost of about $400 million. As remarkable as that achievement was, it was just the beginning of our ongoing effort to understand the human genome, and to use that understanding to improve human health.
That first reference human genome was sequenced using automated machines that were the size of small phone booths. Since then, breathtaking progress has been made in developing innovative technologies that have made DNA sequencing far easier, faster, and more affordable. Now, a report in Nature Biotechnology highlights the latest advance: the sequencing and assembly of a human genome using a pocket-sized device . It was generated using several “nanopore” devices that can be purchased online with a “starter kit” for just $1,000. In fact, this new genome sequence—completed in a matter of weeks—includes some notoriously hard-to-sequence stretches of DNA, filling several key gaps in our original reference genome.
Tags: biotechnology, Biowulf, DNA, DNA sequencing, Ebola virus, genome assembly, hand-held sequencing device, human genome, Human Genome Project, International Space Station, MinION, nanopore sequencing, Oxford Nanopore Technologies, precision medicine, repetitive DNA, telomeres, Zika virus
Happy New Year! While everyone was busy getting ready for the holidays, the journal Science announced its annual compendium of scientific Breakthroughs of the Year. If you missed it, the winner for 2016 was the detection of gravitational waves—tiny ripples in the fabric of spacetime created by the collision of two black holes 1.3 billion years ago! It’s an incredible discovery, and one that Albert Einstein predicted a century ago.
Among the nine other advances that made the first cut for Breakthrough of the Year, several involved the biomedical sciences. As I’ve done in previous years (here and here), I’ll kick off this New Year by taking a quick look of some of the breakthroughs that directly involved NIH support:
Tags: 2016, Africa, aging, All of Us, astronaut, atherosclerosis, Breakthroughs of 2016, Breakthroughs of the Year, chronic kidney disease, custom-designed proteins, designer proteins, DNA analysis, DNA sequencing, embryos, evolution, genomic analysis, genomics, hemagglutinin, human development, human embyos, human evolution, human migration, International Space Station, kidney dysfunction, longevity, nanopore sequencing, osteoarthritis, Out of Africa, portable laboratories, precision medicine, Precision Medicine Initiative, proteins, pulmonary fibrosis, Science's Breakthroughs of the Year, senescent cells, senolytic drugs, Simons Genome Diversity Project, universal flu vaccine, Zika vaccine