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LabTV: Curious About a Mother’s Bond

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Bianca JonesThe bond between a mother and her child is obviously very special. That’s true not only in humans, but in mice and other animals that feed and care for their young. But what exactly goes on in the brain of a mother when she hears her baby crying? That’s one of the fascinating questions being explored by Bianca Jones Marlin, the young neuroscience researcher featured in this LabTV video.

Currently a postdoctoral fellow at New York University School of Medicine, Marlin is particularly interested in the influence of a hormone called oxytocin, popularly referred to as the “love hormone,” on maternal behaviors. While working on her Ph.D.in the lab of Robert Froemke, Marlin tested the behavior and underlying brain responses of female mice—both mothers and non-mothers—upon hearing distress cries of young mice, which are called pups. She also examined how those interactions changed with the addition of oxytocin.

I’m pleased to report that the results of the NIH-funded work Marlin describes in her video appeared recently in the highly competitive journal Nature [1]. And what she found might strike a chord with all the mothers out there. Her studies show that oxytocin makes key portions of the mouse brain more sensitive to the cries of the pups, almost as if someone turned up the volume.

In fact, when Marlin and her colleagues delivered oxytocin to the brains (specifically, the left auditory cortexes) of mice with no pups of their own, they responded like mothers themselves! Those childless mice quickly learned to perk up and fetch pups in distress, returning them to the safety of their nests.

Marlin says her interest in neuroscience arose from her experiences growing up in a foster family. She witnessed some of her foster brothers and sisters struggling with school and learning. As an undergraduate at Saint John’s University in Queens, NY, she earned a dual bachelor’s degree in Biology and Adolescent Education before getting her license to teach 6th through 12th grade Biology. But Marlin soon decided she could have a greater impact by studying how the brain works and gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in learning, whether in the classroom or through life experiences, such as motherhood.

Marlin welcomes the opportunity that the lab gives her to “be an explorer”—to ask deep, even ethereal, questions and devise experiments aimed at answering them. “That’s the beauty of science and research,” she says. “To be able to do that the rest of my life? I’d be very happy.”

References:

[1] Oxytocin enables maternal behaviour by balancing cortical inhibition. Marlin BJ, Mitre M, D’amour JA, Chao MV, Froemke RC. Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):499-504.

Links:

LabTV

Froemke Lab (NYU Langone)

Science Careers (National Institute of General Medical Sciences/NIH)

Careers Blog (Office of Intramural Training/NIH)

Scientific Careers at NIH

 


LabTV: Curious About Parkinson’s Disease

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Kinsley Belle

When the young scientist featured in this LabTV video first learned about induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells a few years ago as an undergrad, he thought it would be cool if he could someday work with this innovative technology. Today, as a graduate student, Kinsley Belle is part of a research team that’s using iPS cells on a routine basis to gain a deeper understanding of Parkinson’s disease.

Derived from genetically reprogrammed skin cells or white blood cells, iPS cells have the potential to develop into many different types of cells, providing scientists with a powerful tool to model a wide variety of diseases in laboratory dishes.  At the University of Miami’s John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Belle and his colleagues are taking advantage of an iPS model of Parkinson’s disease to explore its molecular roots. Their goal? To use that information to develop better treatments or maybe even a cure for the neurodegenerative disorder that affects at least a half-million Americans.


LabTV: Curious About Bacteria

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Robert Morton IIIOther than wondering what might be lurking in those leftovers stashed in the back of the fridge, you probably don’t think much about bacteria. But Robert Morton III—a Ph.D. candidate at Indiana University, Bloomington, and the focus of our latest LabTV profile—sure does. He’s fascinated by the complicated and even beautiful ways in which bacteria interact with their environments. In fact, scientists can learn a whole lot about biology by studying bacteria and other single-celled organisms.

Working in the NIH-funded lab of Yves Brun, Morton has spent many of his days peering through microscopes into the otherwise invisible world of bacteria. His sights are set on the relatively simple, two-component interactions that enable bacteria to sense and respond to various external factors. Each of these interactions features a histidine kinase sensor partnered with a response regulator. Specifically, Morton has focused much of his research on one particular protein thought to play a role in these interactions—a protein that he calls an “orphan” because no scientist has yet identified its partner or determined quite what it does.


LabTV: Curious About Tuberculosis

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LabTV-Bree AldridgeOne reason that I decided to share these LabTV profiles is that they put a human face on the amazingly wide range of NIH-supported research being undertaken every day in labs across the country. So far, we’ve met young scientists pursuing basic, translational, and clinical research related to the immune system, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and the brain’s natural aging process. Today, we head to Boston to visit a researcher who has set her sights on a major infectious disease challenge: tuberculosis, or TB.

Bree Aldridge, PhD, an assistant professor at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston, runs a lab that’s combining microbiology and bioengineering in an effort to streamline treatment for TB, which leads to more than 2 million deaths worldwide every year [1]. Right now, people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis—the microbe that causes TB—must take a combination of drugs for anywhere from six to nine months. When I was exposed to TB as a medical resident, I had to take a drug for a whole year. These lengthy regimens raise the risk that people will stop taking the drugs prematurely or that an opportunistic strain of M. tuberculosis will grow resistant to the therapy. By gaining a better basic understanding of both M. tuberculosis and the cells it infects, Aldridge and her colleagues hope to design therapies that will fight TB with greater speed and efficiency.


LabTV: Young Scientist on a Mission to Cure Alzheimer’s Disease

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Melissa Young LabTV

Time for another LabTV video! Today, I’d like you to meet Melissa Young, a third-year graduate student in the College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens. Young, who is doing research in the lab of James Franklin, says her scientific goal is to help build the scientific case that oxidative stress plays a key role in Alzheimer’s disease.

Young also has a personal reason for wanting to her research to succeed. From her experiences with a beloved grandmother and aunt, she has seen first-hand the heartbreaking effects of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia on both patients and their loved ones. Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease and no treatments to halt or reverse its progression. That’s one of the reasons why Young has chosen to go into an area of science focused on translating basic discoveries into new therapeutics.


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