Celebrating the Power of Connection This Holiday Season
Posted on by Lawrence Tabak, D.D.S., Ph.D.
Happy holidays to one and all! This short science video brings to mind all those twinkling lights now brightening the night, as we mark the beginning of winter and shortest day of the year. This video also helps to remind us about the power of connection this holiday season.
It shows a motor neuron in a mouse’s primary motor cortex. In this portion of the brain, which controls voluntary movement, heavily branched neural projections interconnect, sending and receiving signals to and from distant parts of the body. A single motor neuron can receive thousands of inputs at a time from other branching sensory cells, depicted in the video as an array of blinking lights. It’s only through these connections—through open communication and cooperation—that voluntary movements are possible to navigate and enjoy our world in all its wonder. One neuron, like one person, can’t do it all alone.
This power of connection, captured in this award-winning video from the 2022 Show Us Your Brains Photo and Video contest, comes from Forrest Collman, Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle. The contest is part of NIH’s Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies® (BRAIN) Initiative.
In the version above, we’ve taken some liberties with the original video to enhance the twinkling lights from the synaptic connections. But creating the original was quite a task. Collman sifted through reams of data from high-resolution electron microscopy imaging of the motor cortex to masterfully reconstruct this individual motor neuron and its connections.
Those data came from The Machine Intelligence from Cortical Networks (MICrONS) program, supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). It’s part of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, one of NIH’s governmental collaborators in the BRAIN Initiative.
The MICrONS program aims to better understand the brain’s internal wiring. With this increased knowledge, researchers will develop more sophisticated machine learning algorithms for artificial intelligence applications, which will in turn advance fundamental basic science discoveries and the practice of life-saving medicine. For instance, these applications may help in the future to detect and evaluate a broad range of neural conditions, including those that affect the primary motor cortex.
Pretty cool stuff. So, as you spend this holiday season with friends and family, let this video and its twinkling lights remind you that there’s much more to the season than eating, drinking, and watching football games.
The holidays are very much about the power of connection for people of all faiths, beliefs, and traditions. It’s about taking time out from the everyday to join together to share memories of days gone by as we build new memories and stronger bonds of cooperation for the years to come. With this in mind, happy holidays to one and all.
“NIH BRAIN Initiative Unveils Detailed Atlas of the Mammalian Primary Motor Cortex,” NIH News Release, October 6, 2021
Forrest Collman (Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle)
Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies® (BRAIN) Initiative (NIH)
Show Us Your Brains Photo and Video Contest (BRAIN Initiative)
The Amazing Brain: Capturing Neurons in Action
Posted on by Lawrence Tabak, D.D.S., Ph.D.
With today’s powerful imaging tools, neuroscientists can monitor the firing and function of many distinct neurons in our brains, even while we move freely about. They also possess another set of tools to capture remarkable, high-resolution images of the brain’s many thousands of individual neurons, tracing the form of each intricate branch of their tree-like structures.
Most brain imaging approaches don’t capture neural form and function at once. Yet that’s precisely what you’re seeing in this knockout of a movie, another winner in the Show Us Your BRAINs! Photo and Video Contest, supported by NIH’s Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies® (BRAIN) Initiative.
This first-of-its kind look into the mammalian brain produced by Andreas Tolias, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, and colleagues features about 200 neurons in the visual cortex, which receives and processes visual information. First, you see a colorful, tightly packed network of neurons. Then, those neurons, which were colorized by the researchers in vibrant pinks, reds, blues, and greens, pull apart to reveal their finely detailed patterns and shapes. Throughout the video, you can see neural activity, which appears as flashes of white that resemble lightning bolts.
Making this movie was a multi-step process. First, the Tolias group presented laboratory mice with a series of visual cues, using a functional imaging approach called two-photon calcium imaging to record the electrical activity of individual neurons. While this technique allowed the researchers to pinpoint the precise locations and activity of each individual neuron in the visual cortex, they couldn’t zoom in to see their precise structures.
So, the Baylor team sent the mice to colleagues Nuno da Costa and Clay Reid, Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, who had the needed electron microscopes and technical expertise to zoom in on these structures. Their data allowed collaborator Sebastian Seung’s team, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, to trace individual neurons in the visual cortex along their circuitous paths. Finally, they used sophisticated machine learning algorithms to carefully align the two imaging datasets and produce this amazing movie.
This research was supported by Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), part of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. The IARPA is one of NIH’s governmental collaborators in the BRAIN Initiative.
Tolias and team already are making use of their imaging data to learn more about the precise ways in which individual neurons and groups of neurons in the mouse visual cortex integrate visual inputs to produce a coherent view of the animals’ surroundings. They’ve also collected an even-larger data set, scaling their approach up to tens of thousands of neurons. Those data are now freely available to other neuroscientists to help advance their work. As researchers make use of these and similar data, this union of neural form and function will surely yield new high-resolution discoveries about the mammalian brain.
Tolias Lab (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston)
Nuno da Costa (Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle)
R. Clay Reid (Allen Institute)
H. Sebastian Seung (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ)
Machine Intelligence from Cortical Networks (MICrONS) Explorer
Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies® (BRAIN) Initiative (NIH)
Show Us Your BRAINs Photo & Video Contest (BRAIN Initiative)
NIH Support: BRAIN Initiative; Common Fund