2016 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award
Science has always fascinated Anshul Kundaje, whether it was biology, physics, or chemistry. When he left his home country of India to pursue graduate studies in electrical engineering at Columbia University, New York, his plan was to focus on telecommunications and computer networks. But a course in computational genomics during his first semester showed him he could follow his interest in computing without giving up his love for biology.
Now an assistant professor of genetics and computer science at Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, Kundaje has received a 2016 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award to explore not just how the human genome sequence encodes function, but also why it functions in the way that it does. Kundaje even envisions a time when it might be possible to use sophisticated computational approaches to predict the genomic basis of many human diseases.
Tags: 2016 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award, Alzheimer’s disease, artificial neural networks, cancer, colorectal cancer, computational genomics, computer science, DNA, DNA elements, ENCODE, epigenomics, gene function, gene variants, genomics, heart disease, machine learning, MYC, noncoding DNA, Roadmap Epigenomics Project, transcription factor, yeast
When most people think of reprogramming something, they probably think of writing code for a computer or typing commands into their smartphone. Melanie Samuel thinks of brain circuits, the networks of interconnected neurons that allow different parts of the brain to work together in processing information.
Samuel, a researcher at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, wants to learn to reprogram the connections, or synapses, of brain circuits that function less well in aging and disease and limit our memory and ability to learn. She has received a 2016 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award to decipher the molecular cues that encourage the repair of damaged synapses or enable neurons to form new connections with other neurons. Because extensive synapse loss is central to most degenerative brain diseases, Samuel’s reprogramming efforts could help point the way to preventing or correcting wiring defects before they advance to serious and potentially irreversible cognitive problems.
Tags: 2016 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award, 3D imaging, aging brain, brain, brain circuits, brain connectivity, brain diseases, eye, nervous system, neural circuitry, neural circuits, neurodegenerative disorders, neurology, remodeling synapses, retina, synapse, vision
The term “freeze-dried” may bring to mind those handy MREs (Meals Ready to Eat) consumed by legions of soldiers, astronauts, and outdoor adventurers. But if one young innovator has his way, a test that features freeze-dried biosensors may soon be a key ally in our nation’s ongoing campaign against the very serious threat of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
Each year, antibiotic-resistant infections account for more than 23,000 deaths in the United States. To help tackle this challenge, Ahmad (Mo) Khalil, a researcher at Boston University, recently received an NIH Director’s New Innovator Award to develop a system that can more quickly determine whether a patient’s bacterial infection will respond best to antibiotic X or antibiotic Y—or, if the infection is actually viral rather than bacterial, no antibiotics are needed at all.
Tags: 2016 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award, antibiotic overuse, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic-resistant infections, antibiotics, bacteria, biosensor, diagnostics, drug resistance, genomics, infections, point-of-care diagnostics, RNA sensor tests, RNA sensors, synthetic biology, transcriptome