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60 Search Results for "drug use prevention"

Treating Zika Infection: Repurposed Drugs Show Promise

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Zika researcher

Caption: An NCATS researcher dispenses Zika virus into trays for compound screening in a lab using procedures that follow strict biosafety standards.
Credit: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH

In response to the health threat posed by the recent outbreak of Zika virus in Latin America and its recent spread to Puerto Rico and Florida, researchers have been working at a furious pace to learn more about the mosquito-borne virus. Considerable progress has been made in understanding how Zika might cause babies to be born with unusually small heads and other abnormalities and in developing vaccines that may guard against Zika infection.

Still, there remains an urgent need to find drugs that can be used to treat people already infected with the Zika virus. A team that includes scientists at NIH’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) now has some encouraging news on this front. By testing 6,000 FDA-approved drugs and experimental chemical compounds on Zika-infected human cells in the lab, they’ve shown that some existing drugs might be repurposed to fight Zika infection and prevent the virus from harming the developing brain [1]. While additional research is needed, the new findings suggest it may be possible to speed development and approval of new treatments for Zika infection.

Gene Expression Test Aims to Reduce Antibiotic Overuse

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Doctor with ER patient

Caption: Duke physician-scientist Ephraim Tsalik assesses a patient for a respiratory infection.
Credit: Shawn Rocco/Duke Health

Without doubt, antibiotic drugs have saved hundreds of millions of lives from bacterial infections that would have otherwise been fatal. But their inappropriate use has led to the rise of antibiotic-resistant superbugs, which now infect at least 2 million Americans every year and are responsible for thousands of deaths [1]. I’ve just come from the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, where concerns about antibiotic resistance and overuse was a topic of conversation. In fact, some of the world’s biggest pharmaceutical companies issued a joint declaration at the forum, calling on governments and industry to work together to combat this growing public health threat [2].

Many people who go to the doctor suffering from respiratory symptoms expect to be given a prescription for antibiotics. Not only do such antibiotics often fail to help, they serve to fuel the development of antibiotic-resistant superbugs [3]. That’s because antibiotics are only useful in treating respiratory illnesses caused by bacteria, and have no impact on those caused by viruses (which are frequent in the wintertime). So, I’m pleased to report that a research team, partially supported by NIH, recently made progress toward a simple blood test that analyzes patterns of gene expression to determine if a patient’s respiratory symptoms likely stem from a bacterial infection, viral infection, or no infection at all.

In contrast to standard tests that look for signs of a specific infectious agent—respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or the influenza virus, for instance—the new strategy casts a wide net that takes into account changes in the patterns of gene expression in the bloodstream, which differ depending on whether a person is fighting off a bacterial or a viral infection. As reported in Science Translational Medicine [4], Geoffrey Ginsburg, Christopher Woods, and Ephraim Tsalik of Duke University’s Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Durham, NC, and their colleagues collected blood samples from 273 people who came to the emergency room (ER) with signs of acute respiratory illness. Standard diagnostic tests showed that 70 patients arrived in the ER with bacterial infections and 115 were battling viruses. Another 88 patients had no signs of infection, with symptoms traced instead to other health conditions.

Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancers: Moving Toward More Precise Prevention

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Homologous Hope sculpture

Caption: “Homologous Hope” sculpture at University of Pennsylvania depicting the part of the BRCA2 gene involved in DNA repair.
Credit: Dan Burke Photography/Penn Medicine

Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 gene and closely related BRCA2 gene account for about 5 to 10 percent of all breast cancers and 15 percent of ovarian cancers [1]. For any given individual, the likelihood that one of these mutations is responsible goes up significantly in the presence of  a strong family history of developing such cancers at a relatively early age. Recently, actress Angelina Jolie revealed that she’d had her ovaries removed to reduce her risk of ovarian cancer—news that follows her courageous disclosure a couple of years ago that she’d undergone a prophylactic double mastectomy after learning she’d inherited a mutated version of BRCA1.

As life-saving as genetic testing and preventive surgery may be for certain individuals, it remains unclear exactly which women with BRCA1/2 mutations stand to benefit from these drastic measures. For example, it’s been estimated that about 65 percent of women born with a BRCA1 mutation will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of their lives—which means approximately 35 percent will not. How can women in this situation be provided with more precise, individualized guidance on cancer prevention? An international team, led by NIH-funded researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, recently took an important first step towards answering that complex question.

Drug Discovery from A to Z … Arrhythmias to Zebrafish!

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Healthy and mutated zebrafish

Caption: Healthy zebrafish (top) compared to zebrafish with arrhythmia-causing mutation (bottom). Their hearts are shown to the right, with enlargement indicating a weaker heart. The heart’s outflow tract is marked OFT; atrium, a; and ventricle, v.
Credit: Asimaki et al. Science Translational Medicine

Arrhythmia is a condition in which the heart loses its regular rhythm, beating either too rapidly or too slowly. Occasional irregular heartbeats are harmless, but if sustained they can cause dizziness, fainting, and even sudden death. There are a number of drugs available that can prevent arrhythmias, but none are perfect. Implanted devices can help—pacemakers can keep the heart from beating too slowly, and defibrillators can reset the heart’s rhythm with an electrical shock if a dangerously rapid rhythm develops.

But new treatments are needed. Now, an NIH-funded research team has created an animal model that is advancing efforts to find new drugs to prevent arrhythmia.  Led by Jeffrey Saffitz at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, researchers used genetic engineering techniques to produce zebrafish with genetic mutations identical to those in some people who suffer from a rare inherited disease called arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In humans, ACM leads to dangerous arrhythmias that can cause sudden cardiac death, usually in people under the age of 35.

DNA Analysis Finds New Target for Diabetes Drugs

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ATCG's with a silhouette of people

Credit: Jane Ades, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) tends to run in families, and over the last five years the application of genomic technologies has led to discovery of more than 60 specific DNA variants that contribute to risk. My own research laboratory at NIH has played a significant role in this adventure. But this approach doesn’t just provide predictions of risk; it may also provide a path to developing new ways of treating and preventing this serious, chronic disease that affects about 26 million Americans.

In an unprecedented effort aimed at finding and validating new therapeutic targets for T2D, an international team led by NIH-funded researchers recently analyzed the DNA of about 150,000 people across five different ancestry groups. Their work uncovered a set of 12 rare mutations in the SLC30A8 gene that appear to provide powerful protection against T2D, reducing risk about 65%—even in the face of obesity and other risk factors for the disease [1].

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