Taking a Community-Based Approach to Youth Substance Abuse Prevention
Posted on by Dr. Francis Collins
As a child born and raised in a low-income, urban neighborhood of Jersey City, NJ, Ijeoma Opara counted herself lucky. She had strong support from her parents, both college-educated Nigerian immigrants. But she also saw firsthand the devastating effects that gang violence, crime, drugs, and alcohol were having on too many young people in her community. When she was in high school, her family bought their first house about 20 miles away in the middle-class, suburban neighborhood of Roselle, NJ. The dramatic differences between these two worlds drove home for her how significant a zip code can be in determining a child’s outlook and opportunities.
Today, inspired by this childhood moment of truth, Opara, an assistant professor of social work at The State University Stony Brook University, NY, is the recipient of an NIH Director’s Early Independence Award, tackling the complex relationships between neighborhoods, substance use, and mental health among urban youth. She’s focusing her efforts on Paterson, NJ, a city of about 150,000 people where the rates of substance abuse are among the highest in the country. She hopes to develop community engagement models that will work not only in Paterson, but in struggling urban communities across the United States.
Opara first explored the streets of Paterson, which is located about 20 miles west of New York City, and ultimately fell in love with the place as a PhD fellow studying substance abuse and mental health services. She got to know the youth of Paterson and heard from them directly about what their community was lacking to help them build a brighter future.
She also fell in love with community-based participatory research (CBPR). In this approach, researchers immerse themselves in a community and work as partners with community members, leaders, and organizations to understand the issues that matter, gather essential information and data, and translate them into efforts needed for a community and its youth to thrive.
When Opara decided to apply for the high-risk, high-reward Early Independence Award, she knew her proposal must be innovative and creative. Ultimately, though, Opara realized she needed to propose an idea about which she was passionate.
Opara remembered her love for Paterson and decided to go back there, focusing her attention on filling the many gaps in that community to prevent substance abuse among young people. True to her CBPR approach to research, she also spent weeks meeting with the people of Paterson to ensure that her work would address the community’s most-critical needs and strongest desires from day one.
Opara’s first aim is to look at neighborhoods across the city of Paterson and their relationship to substance abuse and mental health symptoms, including anxiety and depression among its youth. Her work will factor in access to safe housing, healthy food, parks, and playgrounds.
She’ll also recruit young people, including those who are most at risk, to get their take on their community including the prevalence of drug use. Opara won’t just be checking with kids at school. She’ll also spend lots of time with them on basketball courts, in grocery store parking lots, or wherever they like to congregate. What she learns will help her craft evidence-based and community-driven substance abuse interventions for young people at risk. She’ll then work with her partners in the community to help put the interventions to the test.
She recognizes that many consider urban youth too hard to reach. In her view, that’s simply not true. It’s her job to meet these young people where they hang out, learn to engage them, and listen to their needs.
In Paterson, she wants to build vibrant neighborhood models that will enrich the community and help more of its children get ahead. Most of all, she wants to change the way substance abuse and mental health work is done in urban communities like Paterson, and see to it that more resources for youth are put into place.
Opara hopes one day to inhabit a world where urban kids have access to the emotional and mental health resources that they need to cope with the many challenges that confront them. She also wants to inhabit a world where young girls growing up in the inner-city, as she did not so long ago, will be nurtured to move upward and onward as leaders. Her efforts and the strength of her example are certainly a push in the right direction.
Ijeoma Opara (The State University Stony Brook University, NY)
The Substance Abuse and Sexual Health Lab (Stony Brook)
Opara Project Information (NIH RePORTER)
NIH Director’s Early Independence Award
NIH Support: Common Fund
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Posted In: Creative Minds
Tags: alcohol abuse, alcohol use, CBPR, community engagement, community-based participatory research, Creative Minds, crime, drug abuse, drug use, gang violence, health disparities, inner city, mental health, New Jersey, Nigeria, NIH Early Independence Award, Paterson, prevention, social work, substance abuse, substance use, urban youth, youth
I pray for her safety and success and hope there are mechanisms in place to ensure the first.
BRAVO——keep up the good work
“IF NOT ME THEN WHO”
“Young men in gangs are significantly more likely to suffer from a mental disorder and need psychiatric help than other young men, says a UK study. It surveyed 108 gang members and found that half had an anxiety disorders, more than 85% of personality disorder and 25% screened positive for psychosis”. “The research team from Queen Mary, University of London, started by surveying 4,664 men aged between 18 and 34 in Britain.Prof. Jeremy Co– lead study author and director of the forensic psychiatry research unit at Queen Mary, University of London, explained the likely cause”.
“It is probable that, among gang members, high levels of anxiety disorder and psychosis were explained by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the most frequent psychiatric outcome of exposure to violence.”
The study, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, said: “Readiness to retaliate violently if disrespected, excitement from violence, and short-term benefits from instrumental violence lead to further cycles of violence and risk of violent victimization.”
According to the former Principal Lopez of Jefferson Middle School—-“Most Gang Member are at a Elementary Reading Level and many act out of Humiliation. We need Tutors to help them to Read including Mom, Dad, and their Grandparents”.
Beautiful work! I am working on similar project too for my PhD project.