Can you believe the average length of time from target discovery to approval of a new drug currently averages about 14 years? That is WAY too long. Even more shocking is that the failure rate exceeds 95 percent, and the cost per successful drug surpasses $2 billion, after adjusting for all of the failures. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences was specifically established one year ago to apply innovative scientific approaches to the bottlenecks in the pipeline. An example of game-changing innovation is the NCATS collaboration with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop a biochip for testing drug safety. Devices like this and other tissue chips may someday reduce the amount of animal and human clinical trials necessary to determine if a drug works. That could be a huge step toward making drug development faster and cheaper—which is better for all of us.
Growth of blood vessels (red) enables implanted human ectopic artificial livers (HEALs) to grow and function in the mouse. This miniature human liver was removed from a HEAL-humanized mouse. Mice implanted with these organs are particularly useful for monitoring drug metabolism, drug-drug interactions, and predicting how certain drugs can damage and destroy the human liver.
First-term finals are nearly upon us and sadly a disturbing percentage of high school seniors are abusing stimulants Adderall (dextroamphetamine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate), which are prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These drugs increase alertness, attention, and energy the same way cocaine does—by boosting the amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Even though these drugs are legal, they’re quite dangerous if not used properly. Taking high doses can cause irregular heartbeat, heart failure, or seizures. High doses of these stimulants can lead to hostility or feelings of paranoia. So, rather than popping pills, it’s a lot safer—and smarter—to boost your grades the old-school way: by studying.