Cool Videos: Coordinated Chaos in the Cell’s Cytosol

CellDance

When Amy Gladfelter arrived at the University of Basel in Switzerland to pursue post-doctoral work in 2001, she remembers that her research interests were still a little up in the air. As she settled into the new lab, Gladfelter remembers watching movies that others had made of the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii and wondering how on earth its myriad nuclei could share the same cytoplasm and do different things. Now, more than a decade later, this cell biologist finds herself at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H., where she is leading a lab that is making its own thought-provoking movies and pushing the envelope in an effort to answer this and many other scientific questions.

As you’ll learn by watching this video, Gladfelter’s work has implications far beyond the world of fungi because the filamentous proteins called septins, which act to define territory within Ashbya cells, are very similar to certain proteins found in human cells. While such proteins are normally very flexible, they can morph into toxic, solid states in certain human disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Besides illustrating the value of Ashbya for uncovering clues to neurodegenerative disorders, this video delivers a broader message about the importance of all kinds of model organisms for efforts to understand our own biology.

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Head and Neck Cancer: Building the Evidence Base for Precision Oncology

squamous cell carcinoma

Caption: Triple immunohistochemical stained oral squamous cell carcinoma: nuclei in brown, cytoplasm in red, and cytoplasmic membranes in blue green.
Credit: Alfredo A. Molinolo, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH

An exciting new era in cancer research is emerging, called precision oncology. It builds on decades of research establishing that cancers start with glitches in the genome, the cell’s instruction book. Researchers have now identified numerous ways that mutations in susceptible genes can drive the cancer process. Knowing where and how to look for them brings greater precision to diagnosing cancers and gives doctors key clues about which treatments might work and which ones won’t.

To build a firmer evidence base for precision oncology, more and more cancer genomes, from many different body sites, must be analyzed for clues about the drivers of the malignant process. That’s why it’s always exciting to see a new genomic analysis that adds substantially to our understanding of a common tumor. The latest to appear, published online at the journal Nature, comes from an NIH-supported study on the most common type of head and neck cancer, called squamous cell carcinoma. The technologically advanced analysis confirms that many previously suspected genes do indeed play a role in head and neck cancer. But that’s not all. The new data also identify several previously unknown subtypes of this cancer. The first descriptions of the abnormal molecular wiring in these subtypes are outlined, suggesting possible strategies  to neutralize or destroy the cancer cells. That’s potentially good news to help guide and inform the treatment of the estimated 55,000 Americans who are diagnosed with a head and neck cancer each year.

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Cool Videos: A Look Inside a Mouse’s Lung

Mouse Lung

If you have ever wondered what it is like to be an oxygen molecule inhaled through the lungs, here is your chance to find out! In this movie, we take a fantastic voyage through the slippery airways of the adult mouse lung.

We begin at the top in the main pipeline, called the bronchus, just below the trachea and wind through a system of increasingly narrow tubes. As you zoom through the airways, take note of the cilia (seen as goldish streaks); these tiny, hair-like structures move dust, germs, and mucus from smaller air passages to larger ones. Our quick trip concludes with a look into the alveoli — the air sacs where oxygen is delivered to red blood cells and carbon dioxide is removed and exhaled.

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Prostate Cancer: Designing a Smarter High-Tech Biopsy

3D data map of prostate biopsies

Caption: When the biopsy is completed, a 3D data map is generated. In this actual example, what is shown is the contour of the prostate (red), location of the tumor (green), the location of the standard random prostate biopsies (white cores), and the location of the targeted fusion biopsies (yellow cores).
Credit: Peter A. Pinto, National Cancer Institute, NIH

Many of you probably know that prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in American men. But here’s something that might surprise you: the way in which doctors biopsy for prostate cancer hasn’t changed significantly in nearly 30 years—even though about a million such biopsies are conducted every year in the United States.

Unlike breast cancer biopsies, which sample tissue from a suspicious area seen on a mammogram, prostate cancer biopsies still are generally performed as random, 12-point searches to see if any cancerous cells might be lurking somewhere in the prostate gland. While random biopsies have helped to save many lives, NIH-supported research has developed a targeted approach that brings much-needed efficiency to the diagnostic process—and appears to be better at detecting aggressive, high-risk prostate cancer than current methods.

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Cool Videos: Cytotoxic T Cells on Patrol

Cytotoxic T Cell Video screencapture

Wow! It’s one thing to know that the immune system has the power to destroy cancerous cells. But it’s quite another thing to see a cytotoxic T cell actually take out a cancer cell right before your eyes.

This amazing video was produced by Alex T. Ritter as part of Celldance 2014, an annual video series by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB). To make this series happen in 2014, ASCB staff contacted cell biology labs known for their sophisticated imaging tools and techniques, asking them to submit proposals for videos. In return, ASCB provided some funding, post-production support from a professional videographer, and an original soundtrack from the up-and-coming Hollywood composer Ted Masur.

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